FLAG - Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs) Introduction to CATs

The Classroom Assessment Techniques -- CATs (Angelo and Cross, 1993) within the FLAG are succint, self-contained, self-instructional, web-based modules that introduce a broadly applicable technique for use in college or university SMET courses. Each CAT has been written by a college or university instructor who currently uses the technique, and has been reviewed by the FLAG Editorial Board for accuracy and consistency with current professional standards of assessment. In most cases, the technique has an extensive history of research to support claims of reliability and validity. The CATs are linked to a set of discipline-specific "tools" that can be downloaded for immediate use.

Each CAT is composed of a set of common features:

  • Focus Questions: Overview of strategy; general requirements and limitations of implementation.
  • Description: Succint but thorough introduction.
  • Purposes: Indications of appropriate usage.
  • Limitations: Contra-indications and potential problems.
  • Teaching Goals: List of course goals addressed by the strategy.
  • Suggestions for Use: Friendly "Tips" from an experienced user.
  • Step-by-Step: Explicit directions for implementation.
  • Variations: Alternative uses and elaborations.
  • Analysis: Making sense of the data; uses in evaluation.
  • Pros and Cons: Advantages and disadvantages.
  • Theory and Research: Conceptual and empirical foundations.
  • Links: URLs or email addresses of CAT authors for direct contact by users.
  • Sources: Books, papers, related web-sites.
  • Author's Story: Personalized description of author and how (s)he came to use strategy.


Click on a CAT below to learn more about that CAT.

Purpose of Assessment:

Instructor Preparation Time:


Class Size:

Individual or Group Involvement:

  • Angelo, T. A., and Cross, K. P. (1993). Classroom assessment techniques: A handbook for college teachers, 2nd edition, San Francisco: Jossey-Boss.

  • Bloom, B. S., et al., Eds., (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives : the classification of educational goalsD. McKay Co., Inc., New York.