The Parent-Teacher Intervention Project (P-TIP) analyzes treatment services
for preschool children in Head Start programs who have been identified as at
risk for social or emotional difficulties. The treatment approach involves
providing consultation services to parents and teachers of Head Start children
who are experiencing either social withdrawal or conduct problems.
Consultants who have been trained in behavioral consultation work with
parents and teachers to deliver a treatment program. The treatment package
consists of a comprehensive video-based program for parents and teachers that
includes a manual and nine video cassettes that cover four programs: Play,
Praise and Rewards, Effective Limit Setting, and Handling Misbehavior. The
manual contains an introduction to the content of each video cassette and a
summary of points to remember, while the videotapes illustrate essential child
management concepts by displaying brief vignettes of parents interacting with
children in various situations.
Results of the first two years of the project were reported at the 1996
meeting of the council for Exceptional Children:
- Parents rated the experimental children's social skills as having
increased from pretest to posttest, although there was not a significant
difference compared to the control children, whose social skills,
nevertheless, decreased from pretest to posttest.
- Parents rated the experimental children's and control children's problem
behaviors as having decreased from pretest to posttest, but there was no
significant difference between the two groups.
- Teachers perceived both experimental and control children's social skills
as having increased from pretest to posttest, but there were no significant
differences between groups.
- In addition, teachers perceived both groups as having decreased problem
behaviors but there was no significant difference between groups.
- Subjective data from parents and teachers indicated that treatment
acceptability and effectiveness of behavioral consultation combined with a
self-help manual-based approach was rated very highly.
- Although results are in the expected direction, there are no significant
differences between experimental children and control children on
- Generally, there was a positive relationship between independent
observers' ratings of children's positive social engagement and
parent/teacher ratings of attaining treatment goals.
- Subjective data by parents and teachers does suggest positive treatment
outcomes for those children who received behavioral consultation combined
with a self-help manual-based approach.
- The sample size was too small to detect differences, and needs to be
- Perhaps treatment can be made more salient by combining behavioral
consultation with video-based therapy.
Subjective data from parents and teachers indicate that they view their
children/students as exhibiting more desirable behavior than before they
participated in the treatment. But there was lack of substantial difference
between the experimental and control children. This may be attributed to several
factors, including sample size, treatment potency, and treatment integrity. All
these factors are considered as the study continues.